Using COM with Windows PowerShell 1.0

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In previous chapters we have have covered the use of the .NET framework from within Windows PowerShell. In this chapter we will look at leveraging Microsoft's Component Object Model (COM) via Windows PowerShell. In particular the issue of launching and interacting with applications and working with the Windows desktop from within PowerShell will be covered.

Contents




[edit] Listing Available COM Objects

COM objects available on a Windows system are all registered in the Windows registry. A complete list of registered objects may be obtained from within Windows PowerShell by writing and calling a function similar to the following:

function com_list
{
     $path = "REGISTRY::HKey_Classes_Root\clsid\*\progid"

     foreach ($val in dir $path)
     {
           $val.getvalue("")
     }
}

The above script will provide an extensive list of the COM objects registered in the Windows registry. A search for a specific match may be performed by piping the output of the function through to the select-string cmdlet. For example, the following command lists any COM objects names containing the word explorer:

PS C:\tmp> com_list | select-string explorer

InternetExplorer.Application.1
Shell.Explorer.2
Shell.Explorer.1

As illustrated above, there are three entries in the registry which match the criteria. One of these is Internet Explorer and the others relate to Windows Explorer.

[edit] Creating COM Object Instances in Windows PowerShell

New COM object instances are created within Windows PowerShell using the new-object cmdlet combined with the -comobject parameter. This parameter may also be abbreviated to -com. In order to avoid any ambiguity which may result in a .NET or interop library with the same name being loaded, the -strict switch is also recommended:

new-object -comobject object name -strict

For example, to create new InternetExplorer.Application object:

PS C:\tmp> $iexplore = new-object -com InternetExplorer.Application -strict

[edit] Listing the Properties and Methods of a COM Object

Once a new instance of a COM object has been created, it is often useful to find out the methods and properties available for that object. As with .NET objects, this can be achieved using the get-member cmdlet (also available via the gm alias). In the following example, this approach is used to identify the methods and properties of the InternetExplorer.Application object instance created in the previous section of this chapter:

PS C:\tmp> $iexplore | gm


   TypeName: System.__ComObject#{d30c1661-cdaf-11d0-8a3e-00c04fc9e26e}

Name                 MemberType Definition
----                 ---------- ----------
ClientToWindow       Method     void ClientToWindow (int, int)
ExecWB               Method     void ExecWB (OLECMDID, OLECMDEXECOPT, Variant, Variant)
GetProperty          Method     Variant GetProperty (string)
GoBack               Method     void GoBack ()
GoForward            Method     void GoForward ()
GoHome               Method     void GoHome ()
GoSearch             Method     void GoSearch ()
Navigate             Method     void Navigate (string, Variant, Variant, Variant, Variant)
Navigate2            Method     void Navigate2 (Variant, Variant, Variant, Variant, Variant)
PutProperty          Method     void PutProperty (string, Variant)
QueryStatusWB        Method     OLECMDF QueryStatusWB (OLECMDID)
Quit                 Method     void Quit ()
Refresh              Method     void Refresh ()
Refresh2             Method     void Refresh2 (Variant)
ShowBrowserBar       Method     void ShowBrowserBar (Variant, Variant, Variant)
Stop                 Method     void Stop ()
AddressBar           Property   bool AddressBar () {get} {set}
Application          Property   IDispatch Application () {get}
Busy                 Property   bool Busy () {get}
Container            Property   IDispatch Container () {get}
Document             Property   IDispatch Document () {get}
FullName             Property   string FullName () {get}
FullScreen           Property   bool FullScreen () {get} {set}
Height               Property   int Height () {get} {set}
HWND                 Property   int HWND () {get}
Left                 Property   int Left () {get} {set}
LocationName         Property   string LocationName () {get}
LocationURL          Property   string LocationURL () {get}
MenuBar              Property   bool MenuBar () {get} {set}
Name                 Property   string Name () {get}
Offline              Property   bool Offline () {get} {set}
Parent               Property   IDispatch Parent () {get}
Path                 Property   string Path () {get}
ReadyState           Property   tagREADYSTATE ReadyState () {get}
RegisterAsBrowser    Property   bool RegisterAsBrowser () {get} {set}
RegisterAsDropTarget Property   bool RegisterAsDropTarget () {get} {set}
Resizable            Property   bool Resizable () {get} {set}
Silent               Property   bool Silent () {get} {set}
StatusBar            Property   bool StatusBar () {get} {set}
StatusText           Property   string StatusText () {get} {set}
TheaterMode          Property   bool TheaterMode () {get} {set}
ToolBar              Property   int ToolBar () {get} {set}
Top                  Property   int Top () {get} {set}
TopLevelContainer    Property   bool TopLevelContainer () {get}
Type                 Property   string Type () {get}
Visible              Property   bool Visible () {get} {set}
Width                Property   int Width () {get} {set}

[edit] Interacting With COM Objects

With the information covered so far in this chapter, it is now possible to begin working with COM objects. Clearly once an instance of an object has been created, it is then possible to begin calling methods and setting properties on the object to make it perform tasks and behave in certain ways. As an example of this in action, we will create an instance of the InternetExplorer.Application object, make it visible on the Windows desktop and navigate to a specific URL:

$iexplorer = new-object -com InternetExplorer.Application -strict # Create instance of IE

$iexplorer.Visible = $true    # Make it visible on the desktop

$iexplorer.navigate2("http://www.techotopia.com") # Navigate to the Techotopia home page

[edit] Interacting with the Windows Shell

Windows PowerShell and COM provide a mechanism for interacting with various aspects of the Windows GUI through an object named Shell.Application. By manipulating an instance of this object it is possible to perform such tasks as navigate the file system using Windows Explorer, launch control panel items and cascade and tile windows on the desktop.

As with other COM objects, an instance of the Shell.Application class is instantiated using the new-object cmdlet as follows:

$winshell = new-object -com Shell.Application

Once the object is created a list of methods and properties may once again be obtained using get-member (gm):

PS C:\tmp> $winshell | get-member


   TypeName: System.__ComObject#{866738b9-6cf2-4de8-8767-f794ebe74f4e}

Name                 MemberType Definition
----                 ---------- ----------
AddToRecent          Method     void AddToRecent (Variant, string)
BrowseForFolder      Method     Folder BrowseForFolder (int, string, int, Variant)
CanStartStopService  Method     Variant CanStartStopService (string)
CascadeWindows       Method     void CascadeWindows ()
ControlPanelItem     Method     void ControlPanelItem (string)
EjectPC              Method     void EjectPC ()
Explore              Method     void Explore (Variant)
ExplorerPolicy       Method     Variant ExplorerPolicy (string)
FileRun              Method     void FileRun ()
FindComputer         Method     void FindComputer ()
FindFiles            Method     void FindFiles ()
FindPrinter          Method     void FindPrinter (string, string, string)
GetSetting           Method     bool GetSetting (int)
GetSystemInformation Method     Variant GetSystemInformation (string)
Help                 Method     void Help ()
IsRestricted         Method     int IsRestricted (string, string)
IsServiceRunning     Method     Variant IsServiceRunning (string)
MinimizeAll          Method     void MinimizeAll ()
NameSpace            Method     Folder NameSpace (Variant)
Open                 Method     void Open (Variant)
RefreshMenu          Method     void RefreshMenu ()
ServiceStart         Method     Variant ServiceStart (string, Variant)
ServiceStop          Method     Variant ServiceStop (string, Variant)
SetTime              Method     void SetTime ()
ShellExecute         Method     void ShellExecute (string, Variant, Variant, Variant, Variant)
ShowBrowserBar       Method     Variant ShowBrowserBar (string, Variant)
ShutdownWindows      Method     void ShutdownWindows ()
Suspend              Method     void Suspend ()
TileHorizontally     Method     void TileHorizontally ()
TileVertically       Method     void TileVertically ()
ToggleDesktop        Method     void ToggleDesktop ()
TrayProperties       Method     void TrayProperties ()
UndoMinimizeALL      Method     void UndoMinimizeALL ()
Windows              Method     IDispatch Windows ()
WindowsSecurity      Method     void WindowsSecurity ()
WindowSwitcher       Method     void WindowSwitcher ()
Application          Property   IDispatch Application () {get}
Parent               Property   IDispatch Parent () {get}

Now that we have an object instance and a list of methods and properties, it is time to start performing some tasks. For example, to invoke Windows Explorer initialized to a specified folder (in this case C:\tmp):

PS C:\tmp> $winshell.explore("C:\tmp")

To cascade all the windows on the desktop:

PS C:\tmp> $winshell.cascadewindows()

Similarly, to tile or minimize all windows:

PS C:\tmp> $winshell.tilevertically()

PS C:\tmp> $winshell.minimizeall()

In order to run a control panel item, the ControlPanelItem() method of the object needs to be called with the .cpl file of the required item passed as an argument. A full list of items can be obtained from with the Windows PowerShell environment by issuing the following command:

PS C:\tmp> dir $env:windir\system32 -recurse -include *.cpl


    Directory: Microsoft.PowerShell.Core\FileSystem::C:\Windows\system32


Mode                LastWriteTime     Length Name
----                -------------     ------ ----
-a---         1/18/2008  11:32 PM    1122304 appwiz.cpl
-a---         1/18/2008  11:32 PM     990208 bthprops.cpl
-a---         1/18/2008  11:32 PM     368640 desk.cpl
-a---         1/18/2008  11:32 PM    2249216 Firewall.cpl
-a---         11/2/2006   2:44 AM     183296 hdwwiz.cpl
-a---         1/18/2008  11:32 PM    1827840 inetcpl.cpl
-a---         1/18/2008  11:32 PM     337408 intl.cpl
-a---         11/2/2006   2:44 AM     418816 irprops.cpl
-a---         11/2/2006   2:44 AM     484864 main.cpl
-a---         1/18/2008  11:32 PM    1102848 mmsys.cpl
-a---         11/2/2006   2:44 AM     164864 ncpa.cpl
-a---         1/18/2008  11:32 PM     163328 powercfg.cpl
-a---         1/18/2008  11:32 PM     242688 sysdm.cpl
-a---         11/2/2006   2:44 AM     106496 telephon.cpl
-a---         1/18/2008  11:32 PM     714240 timedate.cpl

As an example, the following command will display the Windows Display control panel window:

PS C:\tmp> $winshell.controlpanelitem("desk.cpl")

[edit] Using the WScript.Shell Class

The WScript.Shell class provides a number of useful utilities that greatly extend the range of tasks that can be performed using Windows PowerShell and COM, such as running applications, sending keystrokes to running applications, changing the current working directory and displaying popup message dialogs.

A WScript.Shell instance is created and a list of available methods and properties displayed as follows:

PS C:\tmp> $wscript = new-object -com wscript.shell
PS C:\tmp> $wscript | gm


   TypeName: System.__ComObject#{41904400-be18-11d3-a28b-00104bd35090}

Name                     MemberType            Definition
----                     ----------            ----------
AppActivate              Method                bool AppActivate (Variant, Variant)
CreateShortcut           Method                IDispatch CreateShortcut (string)
Exec                     Method                IWshExec Exec (string)
ExpandEnvironmentStrings Method                string ExpandEnvironmentStrings (string)
LogEvent                 Method                bool LogEvent (Variant, string, string)
Popup                    Method                int Popup (string, Variant, Variant, Variant)
RegDelete                Method                void RegDelete (string)
RegRead                  Method                Variant RegRead (string)
RegWrite                 Method                void RegWrite (string, Variant, Variant)
Run                      Method                int Run (string, Variant, Variant)
SendKeys                 Method                void SendKeys (string, Variant)
Environment              ParameterizedProperty IWshEnvironment Environment (Variant) {get}
CurrentDirectory         Property              string CurrentDirectory () {get} {set}
SpecialFolders           Property              IWshCollection SpecialFolders () {get}

The power of the WScript.Shell class is best demonstrated through a simple example. The following script launches the standard Windows Notepad application, waits until the application has started to make it the active application (such that the focus is on the application) and then sends some text to the application:

$wscript.run("notepad")

while ($wscript.appactivate("notepad") -ne $true)
{
"Waiting for app to start...."
}

$wscript.sendkeys("Hello From Windows PowerShell and COM")

Once executed, Notepad should be running and visible, the currently active application, and contain the text which reads "Hello From Windows PowerShell and COM".

[edit] Summary

In this chapter we have taken a tour of the basics of using Windows PowerShell in conjunction with the Component Object Model (COM). As with .NET, it should be evident that the availability of COM to the Windows PowerShell developer considerably enhances range of options for performing tasks within the context of Windows. Entire books could, and indeed have, been written on COM, so take what you learned in this chapter, grap a COM book from the library and unleash the power that is available to you as a Windows PowerShell programmer.


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